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Tous les sujets n'entrant pas dans les autres catégories du forum Online Baubericht Ausführlicher Baubericht eurer Oldtimersegelflugmodelle. Flugtage - Oldies manntragend und Modelle. Verschiedenes Wie bedient man das Forum, Themen die kein spezielles Unterforum besitzen, Witzigkeiten As long as Great Britain and France remained at peace in Europe, and as long as the precarious balance in the American interior survived, British and French colonies coexisted without serious difficulty.
Within a decade, the British colonies were in open revolt, and France retaliated by secretly supplying the independence movement with troops and war materials. After Congress declared independence in July , its agents in Paris recruited officers for the Continental Army , notably the Marquis de Lafayette , who served with distinction as a major general. Despite a lingering distrust of France, the agents also requested a formal alliance.
After readying their fleet and being impressed by the U. The military alliance began poorly. D'Estaing broke off the operation to confront a British fleet, and then, despite pleas from Sullivan and Lafayette, sailed away to Boston for repairs. Without naval support, the plan collapsed, and American forces under Sullivan had to conduct a fighting retreat alone.
American outrage was widespread, and several French sailors were killed in anti-French riots. D'Estaing's actions in a disastrous siege at Savannah, Georgia further undermined Franco-American relations. The alliance improved with the arrival in the United States in of the Comte de Rochambeau , who maintained a good working relationship with General Washington.
French naval actions at the Battle of the Chesapeake made possible the decisive Franco—American victory at the siege of Yorktown in October , effectively ending the war as far as the Americans were concerned. The French went on fighting, losing a naval battle to Britain in The Patriot reliance on Catholic France for military, financial and diplomatic aid led to a sharp drop in anti-Catholic rhetoric.
Indeed the king replaced the pope as the demon patriots had to fight against. Anti-Catholicism remained strong among Loyalists, some of whom went to Canada after the war while most remained in the new nation. By the s, Catholics were extended legal toleration in all of the New England states that previously had been so hostile.
In the peace negotiations between the Americans and the British in Paris in , the French played a major role. Indeed, the French Foreign Minister Vergennes had maneuvered so that the American Congress ordered its delegation to follow the advice of the French. They realized that they would get better terms directly from Britain itself. The key episodes came in September, , when Vergennes proposed a solution that was strongly opposed by the United States.
France was exhausted by the war, and everyone wanted peace except Spain, which insisted on continuing the war until it captured Gibraltar from the British. Vergennes came up with the deal that Spain would accept instead of Gibraltar. The United States would gain its independence but be confined to the area east of the Appalachian Mountains.
Britain would take the area north of the Ohio River. In the area south of that there would be set up an independent Indian state under Spanish control. It would be an Indian barrier state and keep the Americans from the Mississippi River or New Orleans, which were under Spanish control. John Jay promptly told the British that he was willing to negotiate directly with them, cutting off France and Spain. He was in full charge of the British negotiations and he now saw a chance to split the United States away from France and make the new country a valuable economic partner.
The northern boundary would be almost the same as today. It was a highly favorable treaty for the United States, and deliberately so from the British point of view. Prime Minister Shelburne foresaw highly profitable two-way trade between Britain and the rapidly growing United States, as it indeed came to pass.
Trade with France was always on a much smaller scale. Six years later, the French Revolution toppled the Bourbon regime. At first, the United States was quite sympathetic to the new situation in France, where the hereditary monarchy was replaced by a constitutional republic.
However, in the matter of a few years, the situation in France turned sour, as foreign powers tried to invade France and King Louis XVI was accused of high treason. The French revolutionary government then became increasingly authoritarian and brutal, which dissipated some of the United States' warmth for France. A crisis emerged in when France found itself at war again with Great Britain and its allies, this time after the French revolutionary government had executed the king.
The new federal government in the United States was uncertain how to respond. Should the United States recognize the radical government of France by accepting a diplomatic representative from it? Was the United States obliged by the alliance of to go to war on the side of France? The treaty had been called "military and economic", and as the United States had not finished paying off the French loan, would the military alliance be ignored as well?
President George Washington responding to advice from both Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson recognized the French government, but did not support France in the war with Britain, as expressed in his Proclamation of Neutrality. The proclamation was issued and declared without Congressional approval. Congress instead acquiesced, and a year later passed a neutrality act forbidding U. Thus, the revolutionary government viewed Washington's policy as partial to the enemy. The first challenge to U.
Exasperated, Washington demanded Genêt's recall, but by then the French Revolution had taken yet another turn and the new French ministers arrived to arrest Genêt. Washington refused to extradite Genêt knowing he would otherwise be guillotined.
Genêt became a U. It opened a decade of trade when France was at war with Britain. Biographer Gerald Clarfield says he was a "quick-tempered, self-righteous, frank, and aggressive Anglophile," who handled the French poorly.
In response the French envoy Pierre Adet repeatedly provoked Pickering into embarrassing situations, then ridiculed his blunderings and blusterings to appeal to Republican Party opponents of the Administration. To overcome this resentment John Adams sent a special mission to Paris in to meet the French foreign minister Talleyrand.
The American delegation was shocked, however, when it was demanded that they pay monetary bribes in order to meet and secure a deal with the French government.
Adams exposed the episode, known as the " XYZ Affair ", which greatly offended Americans even though such bribery was not uncommon among the courts of Europe. Tensions with France escalated into an undeclared war—called the " Quasi-War. The unexpected fighting ability of the U.
Navy, which destroyed the French West Indian trade, together with the growing weaknesses and final overthrow of the ruling Directory in France, led Talleyrand to reopen negotiations.
At the same time, President Adams feuded with Hamilton over control of the Adams' administration. Adams took sudden and unexpected action, rejecting the anti-French hawks in his own party and offering peace to France. The subsequent negotiations, embodied in the Convention of also called the "Treaty of Mortefontaine" of Sept. The Convention of ensured that the United States would remain neutral toward France in the wars of Napoleon and ended the "entangling" French alliance with the United States.
Spain was losing money heavily on the ownership of vast Louisiana territory, and was eager to turn it over to Napoleon in He envisioned it as the base along with Haiti of a New World empire.
Louisiana would be a granary providing food to the enslaved labor force in the West Indies. President Jefferson could tolerate weak Spain but not powerful France in the west.
He considered war to prevent French control of the Mississippi River. Jefferson sent his close friend, James Monroe, to France to buy as much of the land around New Orleans as he could. Surprisingly, Napoleon agreed to sell the entire territory. Because of an insuppressible slave rebellion in St. Domingue , modern-day Haiti, among other reasons, Bonaparte's North American plans collapsed.
British bankers financed the deal, taking American government bonds and shipping gold to Paris. The size of the United States was doubled without going to war. Britain and France resumed their war in , just after the Purchase. Both challenged American neutrality and tried to disrupt trade with its enemy.
The presupposition was that small neutral nations could benefit from the wars of the great powers. Jefferson distrusted both Napoleon and Great Britain, but saw Britain with its monarchism, aristocracy and great navy and position in Canada as the more immediate threat to American interests.
Therefore, he and Madison took a generally pro-French position and used the embargo to hurt British trade. Both Britain and France infringed on U.
The British infringed more and also impressed thousands of American sailors into the Royal Navy; France never did anything like impressment. Designed to hurt the British, it hurt American commerce far more. The destructive Embargo Act, which had brought U. Both Britain and France remained hostile to the United States.
The War of was the logical extension of the embargo program as the United States declared war on Britain. However, there was never any sense of being an ally of France and no effort was made to coordinate military activity. France and Spain had not defined a boundary between Louisiana and neighboring territory retained by Spain, leaving this problem for the U.
Army were already encroaching, and acquisition of Spain's weak claims to the Pacific Northwest. Before three more decades had passed, the United States had annexed Texas. Relations between the two nations were generally quiet for two decades.
The French had a strong interest in expanding commercial opportunity in Latin America, especially as the Spanish role was faltering. There was a desire among top French officials that some of the newly independent countries in Latin America might select a Bourbon king, but no actual operations ever took place. French officials ignored the American position.
France and Austria, two reactionary monarchies, strenuously opposed American republicanism and wanted the United States to have no voice whatsoever in European affairs.
A treaty between the United States and France in called for France to pay 25 million francs for the spoilation claims of American shipowners against French seizures during the Napoleonic wars. France did pay European claims, but refused to pay the United States. President Andrew Jackson was livid, In ordered the U. Navy to stand by and asked Congress for legislation.
Jackson's political opponents blocked any legislation. France was annoyed but finally voted the money if the United States apologized. Jackson refused to apologize, and diplomatic relations were broken off until in December Jackson did offer some friendlier words. The British mediated, France paid the money, and cordial relations were resumed.
Modest cultural exchanges resumed, most famously and intense study visits by Gustave de Beaumont and Alexis de Tocqueville , the author of Democracy in America The book was immediately a popular success in both countries, and to this day helps shape American self understanding.
In the s Britain and France considered sponsoring continued independence of the Republic of Texas and blocking U. Balance of power considerations made Britain want to keep the western territories out of U. During the American Civil War , —65, France was neutral.
However Napoleon III favored the seceding Southern states of the Confederacy , hoping to weaken the United States, create a new ally in the Confederacy, safeguard the cotton trade and protect his large investment in controlling Mexico. France was too weak to declare war alone which might cause Prussia to attack , and needed British support. The British were unwilling to go to war and nothing happened. The United States protested and refused to recognize the new government.
He did not want a war with France before the Confederacy was defeated. When the French troops left the Mexicans executed the puppet emperor Maximilian. Washburne , provided much medical, humanitarian, and diplomatic support to peoples of all nations, gaining much credit to the Americans. The United States, rising to the status as a great power, came to overshadow Europe. All during this period the relationship remained friendly—as symbolized by the Statue of Liberty , presented in as a gift to the United States from the French people.
From until , France was the only major republic in Europe, which endeared it to the United States. Many French people held the United States in high esteem, as a land of opportunity and as a source of modern ideas.
Few French people emigrated to the United States. Intellectuals, however, saw the United States as a land built on crass materialism, lacking in a significant culture, and boasting of its distrust of intellectuals. Very few Self-styled French intellectuals were admirers. President Theodore Roosevelt sided with the French.
However as the Americans grew mightily in economic power, and forged closer ties with Britain, the French increasingly talked about an Anglo-Saxon threat to their culture. During World War I the United States was initially neutral but eventually entered the conflict in and provided much-needed money--as loans to be repaid--that purchased American food, oil and chemicals for the French effort. The American troops were sent over without their heavy equipment so that the ships could carry more soldiers.
In the United States sent over a million combat troops who were stationed to the south of the main French lines. They gave the Allies a decisive edge, as the Germans were unable to replace their heavy losses and lost their self-confidence by September Wilson had become the hero of the war for Frenchmen, and his arrival in Paris was widely hailed.
However, the two countries clashed over France's policy to weaken Germany and make it pay for the entire French war. The burning ambition of French Premier Georges Clemenceau was to ensure the security of France in the future; his formula was not friendship with Germany restitution, reparations, and guarantees.
Clemenceau had little confidence in what he considered to be the unrealistic and utopian principles of US President Woodrow Wilson: The two nations disagreed on debts, reparations, and restraints on Germany. Clemenceau was also determined that a buffer state consisting of the German territory west of the Rhine River should be established under the aegis of France. In the eyes of the U. The territory in question was to be occupied by Allied troops for a period of five to fifteen years, and a zone extending fifty kilometers east of the Rhine was to be demilitarized.
Republican leaders in Washington were willing to support a security treaty with France. It failed because Wilson insisted on linking it to the Versailles Treaty, which the Republicans would not accept without certain amendments Wilson refused to allow. While French historian Duruoselle portrays Clemenceau as wiser than Wilson, and equally compassionate and committed to justice but one who understood that world peace and order depended on the permanent suppression of the German threat.
Blumenthal agrees with Wilson that peace and prosperity required Germany's full integration into the world economic and political community as an equal partner. One result was that in the s the French deeply distrusted the Americans, who were loaning money to Germany which Germany used to pay its reparations to France and other Allies , while demanding that France repay its war loans from Washington. During the interwar years, the two nations remained friendly. Beginning in the s, U.
A number of American artists, such as Josephine Baker , experienced popular success in France. Paris was also quite welcoming to American jazz music and black artists in particular, as France, unlike a significant part of the United States at the time, had no racial discrimination laws. Numerous writers such as William Faulkner , F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ernest Hemingway , and others were deeply influenced by their experiences of French life. However, anti-Americanism came of age in the s, as many French traditionalists were alarmed at the power of Hollywood and warned that America represented modernity, which in turn threatened traditional French values , customs, and popular literature.
It attracted larger crowds than the Louvre , and soon it was said that the iconic American cartoon character Mickey Mouse had become more familiar than Asterix among French youth. In the two nations were the chief sponsors of the Kellogg—Briand Pact which informally outlawed war. The pact, which was endorsed by most major nations, renounced the use of war, promoted peaceful settlement of disputes, and called for collective force to prevent aggression.
Its provisions were incorporated into the United Nations Charter and other treaties and it became a stepping stone to a more activist American policy. The successful performance of German warplanes during the Spanish Civil War —39 suddenly forced France to realize its military inferiority. Germany had better warplanes, more of them, and much more efficient production systems. In late he told Roosevelt about The French weaknesses, and asked for military help.
Roosevelt was forthcoming, and forced the War Department to secretly sell the most modern American airplanes to France. France and Britain declared war on Germany when it invaded Poland in September , but there was little action until the following spring. Many French soldiers were evacuated through Dunkirk, but France was forced to surrender. Langer argues that Washington was shocked by the sudden collapse of France in spring , and feared that Germany might gain control of the large French fleet, and exploit France's overseas colonies.
This led the Roosevelt administration to maintain diplomatic relations. Vichy regime was officially neutral but it was helping Germany. The United States severed diplomatic relations in late when Germany took direct control of areas that Vichy had ruled, and Vichy France became a Nazi puppet state.
After Normandy the Americans and the Allies knew it was only a matter of time before the Nazis lost.